Hoàn lưu khí quyển

Sự chênh lệch về nhiệt độ giữa vùng cực và vùng xích đạo gây ra hoàn lưu khí quyển, chịu sự ảnh hưởng của một số yếu tố, trong đó có sự quay của Trái Đất.

Sự thay đổi trạng thái

Thay đổi trạng thái là khi một chất chuyển từ trạng thái này sang trạng thái khác.

Tầng ozone

Tầng ozone lọc bức xạ cực tím có hại từ Mặt Trời, do đó không thể thiếu đối với sự sống trên Trái Đất.

Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two pi bonds holding the atoms together.

Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it is released into the atmosphere.

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system reduces emission.

Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Sulphurous acid (H₂SO₃)

Colourless, moderate acid, only known in aqueous solution.

House without carbon-dioxide emission

The design and structure of modern houses play an important role in environmental protection.

Reaction of ammonia with hydrogen chloride

Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

Polymerisation of ethene

Polymerised ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.


Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

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