DNA

Carrier of genetic information in cells.

Amino acids

Amino acids are the monomers of proteins.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Structure of proteins

The structure and arrangement of polypeptide chains affects the spatial structure of...

Haemoglobin

Oxygen carrier protein in our red blood cells.

Fullerene (C₆₀)

A crystalline allotrope of carbon which was discovered at the end of the 1980s.

RNA

A polynucleotid made up of phosphoric acid, ribose, and nucleobases (cytosine, uracil,...

Stearic acid (octadecanoic acid) (C₁₇H₃₅COOH)

Solid, white substance, a constituent of vegetable oils and animal fats.

Lactose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A type of sugar found in mammalian milk.

Saccharose (sucrose) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.

Cellulose (C₆H₁₀O₅)n

The building material of the cell walls and fibres of plants.

Oil refinery

The products of oil refining include diesel oil, petrol and lubricants.

Fat molecule

Three saturated fatty acid molecules linked to a glycerol molecule.

Optical isomerism

Mirror image isomers of asymmetrical shapes and solids are non-superimposable.

Oil molecule

Triglycerides containing unsaturated fatty acids are liquid at room temperature.

Secondary structure of proteins

Polypeptide chains are composed of amino acids and can appear in alpha-helix or...

Conformations of ethane

The staggered conformation of ethane is more stable than the eclipsed conformation.

Polymerisation of ethene

Polymerised ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.

Formic acid (methanoic acid) (HCOOH)

Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid.

Diamond

Crystalline allotrope of elemental carbon, the hardest known natural substance.

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