Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Atmospheric circulation

The difference between the temperature of the polar and equatorial zones causes...

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric...

Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it...

Structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two...

Phase transitions

A phase transition is the transformation of a substance from one state of matter to another.

Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Ozone layer

The ozone layer filters the Sun´s harmful UV radiation, therefore it is indispensable for...

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Sulphurous acid (H₂SO₃)

Colourless, moderate acid, only known in aqueous solution.

House without carbon-dioxide emission

The design and structure of modern houses play an important role in environmental protection.

Reaction of ammonia with hydrogen chloride

Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

Polymerisation of ethene

Polymerised ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.

Ferrous metallurgy (intermediate)

Raw iron is produced from iron ore in iron smelters.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)

Limestone is a widely and diversely used material.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with...

Producing ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas

Large-scale ammonia production requires high temperature and pressure and the presence of...

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