Жасушалардағы генетикалық ақпаратты тасушы.

Целлюлоза (C₆H₁₀O₅)n

Өсімдіктердің жасуша қабырғаларының және талшықтарының материалы.

Май молекуласы

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Лактоза (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

Сүтқоректілердің сүтінде кездесетін қант.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Structure of proteins

The structure and arrangement of polypeptide chains affects the spatial structure of...

Fullerene (C₆₀)

A crystalline allotrope of carbon which was discovered at the end of the 1980s.


A polynucleotid made up of phosphoric acid, ribose, and nucleobases (cytosine, uracil,...

Oil refinery

The products of oil refining include diesel oil, petrol and lubricants.

Optical isomerism

Mirror image isomers of asymmetrical shapes and solids are non-superimposable.

Oil molecule

Triglycerides containing unsaturated fatty acids are liquid at room temperature.

Secondary structure of proteins

Polypeptide chains are composed of amino acids and can appear in alpha-helix or...

Conformations of ethane

The staggered conformation of ethane is more stable than the eclipsed conformation.


Crystalline allotrope of elemental carbon, the hardest known natural substance.

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