Waterfall

Waterfall

Waterfalls form where the river flows over a steep precipice in its course.

Geography

Keywords

waterfall, river, Khone, Angel falls, balance, terrain shaping, river bed, alluvion, rock, Mekong, Congo, nature, geomorphology, geography

Related items

Scenes

Waterfall

A waterfall is a part of a river or stream where the water flows over the edge of a vertical or steep cliff. Waterfalls form most often in the upper sections of a river. If the river flows over different bands of rocks, the softer rocks are eroded more quickly, producing a step in the river bed which gets larger over time, creating a waterfall. The plunge pool at the base of the waterfall is continuously deepened by the power of the water.

Softer rocks are continuously eroded by splashback as well as whirlpools created by the cascading, sediment-bearing water. As the amount of undercutting in the cliff increases, the harder rock remains unsupported and collapses. As this process is repeated over time, the waterfall retreats upstream and keeps getting taller.

Waterfalls can be grouped into several categories based on their size. With a height of almost 1,000 meters (3,281 feet), the Venezuelan Angel Falls is considered the tallest waterfall in the world. With a width of about 11 km (6.8 mi), the Khone Falls, located on the Mekong River, is the widest waterfall in the world. The world’s largest waterfall by discharge is Inga Falls, with a discharge of nearly 26,000 m³/s (918,181 ft³/s).

Section

  • hard rock
  • soft rock
  • fallen rocks
  • plunge pool

Formation

Largest waterfalls

  • Angel - It is located on the river Gauja in Venezuela. The 979-meter (3,212-feet) tall waterfall is ranked as the tallest waterfall in the world.
  • Tugela - It is located on the Tugela River. The 948-meter (3,110-feet) tall waterfall is ranked as the second tallest waterfall in the world.
  • Tres Hermanas - With a height of 914 meter (2,999 feet), this is the third tallest waterfall in the world
  • Olo'upena - The 900-meter (2,953-feet) tall waterfall is located on the Hawaiian Island of Molokai.
  • Yumbilla - The 896-meter (2,940-feet) tall waterfall is located in the Amazonas Region.
  • Vinnufossen - It is located on the river Vinnu. The 865-meter (2,838-feet) tall waterfall is the tallest waterfall in Eurasia.
  • Skorga - The 864-meter (2,835-feet) tall waterfall is located on the river Skorga near Vinnufossen.
  • Pu'uka'oku - The 840-meter (2,756-feet) tall waterfall is located on the Hawaiian Island of Molokai.
  • James Bruce - The 840-meter (2,756-feet) tall waterfall is the tallest waterfall in North America.
  • Browne - The 836-meter (2,743-feet) tall waterfall is the tallest waterfall in New Zealand.
  • Kjerrskredfossen - The 830-meter (2,723-feet) tall waterfall is the second tallest waterfall in Norway.
  • Los Chorros de Cura - The 821-meter (2,694-feet) tall waterfall is one of the tallest waterfalls in Venezuela.
  • Waihilau - The 792-meter (2,598-feet) tall waterfall is located in Hawaii.
  • Colonial Creek - The 783-meter (2,569-feet) tall waterfall is the tallest waterfall in the continental United States.
  • Mongefossen - It is 773 meters (2,536 feet) tall.

Animation

  • Inga - The largest waterfall in the world is located on the Congo River. It has an annual average discharge of 25,770 m³/s (910,059 ft³/s).
  • Khone - The world's widest waterfall (10,800 m or 35,433 ft) is located on the Mekong River. It has an annual average discharge of 11,600 m³/s (409,650 ft³/s).

Pictures

  • Angel Falls
  • Iguazu Falls
  • Khone Falls
  • Niagara Falls
  • Victoria Falls

Narration

A waterfall is a part of a river or stream where the water flows over the edge of a vertical or steep cliff. Waterfalls most often form in the upper sections of a river.

If the river flows over different bands of rocks, the softer rocks are eroded more quickly, producing a step in the river bed which grows larger over time, creating a waterfall. The plunge pool at the base of the waterfall is continuously deepened by the power of the water.

Softer rocks are continuously eroded by splashback as well as whirlpools created by the cascading, sediment-bearing water. As the amount of undercutting in the cliff increases, the harder rock remains unsupported and collapses. As this process is repeated over time, the waterfall retreats upstream and continues to grow taller.

Waterfalls are grouped into several categories based on their height, width or discharge. With a height of almost 1,000 metres, Angel Falls in Venezuela is considered the tallest waterfall in the world.

With a width of about 11 km, the Khone Falls, located on the Mekong River in Laos, is the widest waterfall in the world.

The world's largest waterfall by discharge is Inga Falls on the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with a discharge of nearly 26,000 m³/s.

Related items

Rivers and landforms

Rivers play an important role in shaping the Earth's surface: they cause erosion as well as carrying and depositing sediment.

Terms of physical geography

This animation demonstrates the most important relief features, surface waters and their relevant symbols.

Fallingwater (Mill Run, USA, 1939)

Frank Lloyd Wright's well-known work is a masterpiece of modern organic architecture.

Faulting (intermediate)

Vertical forces can break up layers of rock into fault blocks, which then move vertically along the fracture planes.

Sights of the world

A game about sights around the world.

The water cycle (intermediate)

Water on Earth is in a continuous state of change. The water cycle includes processes such as evaporation, precipitation, melting and freezing.

Fjord

A fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.

Glacier (intermediate)

A glacier is a large body of ice that forms from snow, and is in constant, slow motion.

How do seas shape the Earth's surface?

Seawater, as an external force, plays an important role in shaping coastlines.

Karst region (intermediate)

Karst formations include dolines and dripstones.

Watermill

Machines converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power were already in use in the Middle Ages.

Added to your cart.