Water is a very stable compound of hydrogen and oxygen, vital for all known forms of life. In nature it occurs in liquid, solid and gaseous state.
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Molar mass: 18.0151 g/mol
Melting point: 0.00 °C (32 °F)
Boiling point: 100.00 °C (212 °F)
Density (at 25 °C or 77 °F): 0.99701 g/cm³ (0.0360 lb/in³)
Molecular shape: V shape
Bond angle: 104.5°
Water is a colorless, odorless liquid at room temperature. Water molecules are dipoles, with hydrogen bonds and dipole-dipole interactions forming between them. It is a good solvent of both polar and ionic substances. In the solid state, it forms a crystal structure; freezing involves a considerable increase in volume. Water is an amphoteric compound, as it reacts with both acids and bases. It is indispensable for living organisms.
Occurrence and production
70.8% of the Earth´s surface is covered with water. It occurs in nature in the solid, liquid and gas states. Chemically pure water can be obtained by burning pure hydrogen.
Large amounts of water are used domestically, in agriculture and in industry.
During freezing hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules resulting in a crystal structure.
The presence of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution´s pH.
A compound ion formed when a water molecule releases a proton.
A phase transition is the transformation of a substance from one state of matter to another.
Colorless, odorless liquid produced by dissolving carbon dioxide in water.
Dry land on the surface of Earth is divided into continents which are separated by oceans.
What happens in a liquid during evaporation and boiling? What does its boiling point depend on?
This animation demonstrates the structure and operation of hair dryers.
This animation demonstrates how microwave ovens work.
The compound of hydrogen and oxygen. Colorless, odorless liquid; heavier than water.
A colorless, toxic gas with the characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It occurs in certain mineral waters and spring waters.
Physical properties, as well as the flora and fauna of the ocean change with depth.
An exercise about the polarity of molecules.
A colorless, odorless, non-reactive gas, it constitutes 78.1% of Earth´s atmosphere.
The Great ocean conveyor is a planet-wide system of ocean currents, which has a great influence on the Earth´s climate.
Plants are capable of converting inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) into organic sugar.
The boundaries of tectonic plates can be seen on the seafloor.
This animation demonstrates the most important seas and bays.
Surface tension is the property of a liquid that allows it to obtain the smallest surface area possible.
Candles have been used for lighting since ancient times.
Water on Earth is in a continuous state of change. The water cycle includes processes such as evaporation, precipitation, melting and freezing.
The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid.
Colorless, odorless, lighter-than-air gas. The most common chemical element in the universe.
A colorless, odorless gas, an important component of the atmosphere, indispensable to sustain terrestrial life.
Knallgas is the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. It will explode when ignited.