The first member in the homologous series of alkanes.
methane, saturated hydrocarbon, alkane, paraffin, homologous series, petroleum, natural gas, firedamp, tetrahedron, nonpolar, thermal decomposition, substitution reaction, organic chemistry, chemistry
Molar mass: 16.043 g/mol
Melting point: -182.47 °C (-296.45 °F)
Boiling point: -161.45 °C (-258.61 °F)
Density: 0.0007 g/cm³ (0.000025 lb/in³)
Relative steam density (air=1): 0.6
Heat of combustion: 890.9 kJ/mol
Molecular shape: tetrahedron
Bond angle: 109.5°
Methane is a colorless, odorless, lighter-than-air gas, which dissolves well in organic solvents but not in water. It burns in air to form water and carbon-dioxide. The carbon-hydrogen bond is weakly polar, yet the molecule, due to its symmetry, is non-polar. When it is chlorinated, it produces chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. This is a substitution reaction.
A mixture of methane and air is explosive. (This is called firedamp.) Isolated from air, methane starts to break down at a temperature of about 500 °C (932 °F). Its reaction with water produces synthesis gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Occurrence and production
Methane occurs in natural gas, in swamp gas, in biogas, and, in dissolved form, in crude oil. It is a product of the bacterial decomposition of cellulose.
It can be produced in laboratories by heating a finely powdered mixture of sodium acetate and sodium hydroxide.
Methane is an important base material in industry. Various compounds, such as halogenated carbohydrates, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide can be produced from it. It is most widely used as a fuel and a propellant.
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons which can be organized into a homologous series.
Biogas can be produced from organic material (manure, plant waste, organic waste) using bacteria. Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide; burning...
A solid substance formed at low temperatures on the ocean floors of Earth by the high pressure.
During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.
One of the products of the oxidation of ethanol.
The molecule has two enantiomers: stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other and are not superimposable.
Colorless, toxic liquid with a sweet odor.
Chloromethane can be prepared by heating a mixture of methane and chlorine.
It is produced by treating methane with chlorine gas and used as a solvent.
The best known alcohol, important in the food industry.
The simplest aldehyde.
A colorless, slightly viscous, hygroscopic liquid used in the production of formic acid, hydrogen cyanide and other organic compounds.
Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid.
The simplest saturated alcohol. A highly toxic compound, easily confusable with ethanol.
The ester of formic acid and methanol, an aroma compound found in certain fruits.
Also known as chloroform, used as a solvent in laboratories, earlier as an anesthetic.