Dissolution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water
The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid.
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A solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid. During dissolution, the hydrogen chloride molecule donates a proton to a water molecule, producing a positively charged oxonium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion. In this reaction hydrogen chloride is an acid, since it loses a proton, while water is a base, as it receives a proton. The ions are hydrated, that is, they are surrounded by water molecules.
Commercially available concentrated hydrochloric acid contains 38% HCl by mass, so it is highly acidic. 20% hydrochloric acid is used for domestic cleaning and removing limescale. Gastric liquid in the stomach also contains hydrochloric acid; it provides the acidic environment necessary for a protein-digesting enzyme called pepsin, which exhibits maximum activity at pH 2.0.
Common salt is dissolved by water: polar water molecules form a coat around the ions.
A colorless gas with a pungent odor, its solution in water is called hydrochloric acid.
A yellow-green toxic gas with a strong odor, one of the halogens.
Atoms within hydrogen halides are bound by covalent bonds, forming polar molecules.
The presence of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution´s pH.
A solid substance formed at low temperatures on the ocean floors of Earth by the high pressure.
Water is a very stable compound of hydrogen and oxygen, vital for all known forms of life. In nature it occurs in liquid, solid and gaseous state.
Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.