Dissolution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water

Dissolution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water

The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Chemistry

Keywords

hydrogen chloride, dissolution, chemical reaction, chemical, reaction, acid-base reaction, hydrochloric acid, hydronium ion, proton transition, hydrogen chloride molecule, water molecule, chloride ion, acid, base, solution, Brønsted, acidity, descaler, gastric acid, stomach acid, hydration shell, inorganic chemistry, chemistry

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Narration

A solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid. During dissolution, the hydrogen chloride molecule donates a proton to a water molecule, producing a positively charged oxonium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion. In this reaction hydrogen chloride is an acid, since it loses a proton, while water is a base, as it receives a proton. The ions are hydrated, that is, they are surrounded by water molecules.

Commercially available concentrated hydrochloric acid contains 38% HCl by mass, so it is highly acidic. 20% hydrochloric acid is used for domestic cleaning and removing limescale. Gastric liquid in the stomach also contains hydrochloric acid; it provides the acidic environment necessary for a protein-digesting enzyme called pepsin, which exhibits maximum activity at pH 2.0.

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Dissolution of NaCl

Common salt is dissolved by water: polar water molecules form a coat around the ions.

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)

A colorless gas with a pungent odor, its solution in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Chlorine (Cl₂)

A yellow-green toxic gas with a strong odor, one of the halogens.

Comparison of hydrogen halides

Atoms within hydrogen halides are bound by covalent bonds, forming polar molecules.

Hydronium ion (H₃O⁺)

The presence of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution´s pH.

Methane hydrate

A solid substance formed at low temperatures on the ocean floors of Earth by the high pressure.

Water (H₂O)

Water is a very stable compound of hydrogen and oxygen, vital for all known forms of life. In nature it occurs in liquid, solid and gaseous state.

Addition

Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.

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