Comparison of hydrogen halides

Comparison of hydrogen halides

Atoms within hydrogen halides are bound by covalent bonds, forming polar molecules.

Chemistry

Keywords

hydrogen halide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen iodide, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen chloride, covalent bond, sigma bond, polar, molecule polarity, binding energy, molecule, general chemistry, chemistry

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Hydrogen halides

Hydrogen and halogen atoms bound by covalent bonds form polar molecules. The larger the molecules, the greater the bond distances between them and the smaller the binding energy.

A dipole-dipole interaction is formed between the molecules in the liquid and solid states. Furthermore, strong hydrogen bonds occur in hydrogen fluoride. This is the reason for this compound’s extremely high melting and boiling points.

Hydrogen halides are colorless, toxic gases with a pungent odor. They dissolve well in water. They also react with water, during which they act as an acid. Their acidity increases with the increase in the size of the molecules.

Their aqueous solutions react with metals of negative standard potentials, producing hydrogen gas and metal halides.

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Comparison of halogens

Halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

Fluorine (F₂)

The lightest halogen, a pale yellow-green, toxic gas, extremely reactive. Its best known compound is teflon.

Hydrogen bromide (HBr)

One of the hydrogen halides, it is used for the production of alkyl bromides.

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)

A colorless gas with a pungent odor, its solution in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Hydrogen-fluoride (HF)

One of the hydrogen halides, a highly aggressive substance - it even attacks glass.

Hydrogen-iodide (HI)

A colorless, heavier-than-air gas with a pungent odor.

Dissolution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water

The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Hydrogen (H₂)

Colorless, odorless, lighter-than-air gas. The most common chemical element in the universe.

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