Carbon dioxide (CO₂) (beginner)

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) (beginner)

Colorless, odorless, heavier-than-air gas. Necessary for the photosynthesis of plants.

Chemistry

Keywords

carbon dioxide, dry ice, molecule, greenhouse effect, combustion product, combustion, complete combustion, pi bond, sigma bond, photosynthesis, linear molecule, carbonic acid, general chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemistry

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Carbon dioxide CO2

Information

Molar mass: 44.01 g/mol

Melting point: -78.5 °C (-109.3 °F)

Relative steam density (air=1): 1.5

Molecular shape: linear

Bond angle: 180°

Properties

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, heavier-than-air gas. It is not flammable and does not feed combustion. Solid carbon dioxide is called ’dry ice’. It dissolves in water; the solution is a weak acid called carbonic acid. It precipitates calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide; this method is used to detect carbon dioxide. It also reacts with strong bases. High concentrations of carbon dioxide in the air (those higher than 10%) may cause loss of consciousness or even death.

Occurrence and production

In laboratories, CO₂ is produced in Kipp’s apparatus in a reaction of hydrogen chloride and marble chips. In industry, it is produced as a by-product of certain processes. It is also produced during the combustion of carbon compounds in the presence of oxygen.
Carbon dioxide is one of the gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. The respiration of plants, animals and humans produces carbon dioxide; plants also use it in photosynthesis.

Uses

Carbon dioxide is added to mineral water and soft drinks; it is also used for cooling (as dry ice) and for filling fire extinguishers.

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Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it is released into the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) (intermediate)

Colorless, odorless, heavier-than-air gas. Necessary for the photosynthesis of plants.

Carbon monoxide (CO) (intermediate)

Colorless, odorless gas, highly toxic to humans and animals in high concentration.

Carbon monoxide (CO) (beginner)

Colorless, odorless gas, highly toxic to humans and animals in high concentration.

Carbonic acid (H₂CO₃)

Colorless, odorless liquid produced by dissolving carbon dioxide in water.

Fuel cell

A fuel cell provides environment-friendly electric energy produced by the chemical reaction between oxygen and hydrogen.

Oxygen (O₂) (beginner)

A colorless, odorless gas, an important component of the atmosphere, indispensable to sustain terrestrial life.

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is responsible for the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide.

Diamond

Crystalline allotrope of elemental carbon, the hardest known natural substance.

Graphite

One of the crystalline allotropes of elemental carbon.

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