Ancient agriculture in the Nile Valley
Ancient Egypt was called the ‘gift of the Nile’, since the river played an important role in the rise of Egyptian civilization.
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The Nile is the longest and among the best known rivers in the world. It played an important role in Egyptian culture in prehistoric times. In Ancient times, the river was called ‘Hapi,’ after the god of fertility and rebirth. The name Nile originates from the Greek word ‘Neilos,’ meaning ‘river valley.’
Egypt is often called the ‘gift of the Nile,’ as the life of Egyptians depended on the river. It flooded annually, around July 19, leaving fertile mud deposits on the surrounding land. This event was so important that the day of the flood became the first day of the Egyptian calendar.
The ancient Egyptian name of the country was Kemet, meaning ‘black land,’ from the rich dark mud. As the river flooded, Egyptians attempted to keep the water on the lands by building dams and canals, so that the mud could be completely deposited.
Using an advanced irrigation system, they made large areas along the Nile fertile. Lands were divided into parcels by ditches, these parcels were watered from canals with water-lifting devices. The construction of canals and dams and the operation of irrigation systems required co-operation and a high level of organization within the settlements and thus played a great role in creating the ancient Egyptian state.
An average Egyptian dwelling consisted of regularly arranged rooms.
Inhabitants of ancient Egypt wore characteristic clothes and jewelry.
Egyptian Pharaohs were respected as gods, they were lords of life and death.
Oases are areas in deserts where water is available.
Ancient Egyptians worshiped a large number of gods and goddesses.
The screw pump commonly attributed to Archimedes made irrigation much more effective
The outcome of one of the greatest battles in the history of the ancient East (fought by the Egyptians and Hittites) was indecisive.
Numerous legendary empires were built (and destroyed) in the course of history.
The first calendars and time-measuring instruments were already used by ancient Eastern civilizations.
These tools, revolutionary even in their simplicity, are still in use today.
The step pyramid, built in the 27th century B.C., was the first pyramid in Egypt.
The Rosetta Stone helped to solve the mystery of hieroglyphics.
The river and marine sailboats of ancient Egypt were one-masted, oared boats
The Giza Necropolis is the only one of the Ancient wonders still intact.
Farming techniques evolved with the development of human civilization in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age.
Medieval Syrian water wheels were used to convey water to distant areas.
The ancient city of Babylon was built on the banks of the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.
One of the greatest archeological finds of the 20th century was the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh.