The ventricular system and the main brain regions

The ventricular system and the main brain regions

This animation demonstrates the internal structure of the brain.

Biology

Keywords

ventricle, brain, cerebral cortex, grey matter, white matter, cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, lentiform nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, cerebrospinal fluid, caudate nucleus, spinal cord, cerebral hemisphere, nervous system, brain volume, limbic system, medulla oblongata, bridge, mesencephalon, human, biology

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Questions

  • Find the thalamus.
  • Find the amygdala.
  • Find the caudate nucleus.
  • Find the lentiform nucleus!
  • Find the right lateral ventricle.
  • Find the left lateral ventricle.
  • Find the third ventricle.
  • Find the fourth ventricle.
  • Find the nucleus which is responsible for aggressive behaviour.
  • Find the main switching centre of sensory nerve paths.
  • Find the structure which is directly connected to the central canal.
  • Find the ventricle between the thalamuses.
  • Find the ventricle in the brainstem.
  • Find the structure that is part of the diencephalon.
  • Find the basal nucleus which forms a larger structure with the hypothalamus.
  • Find the basal nucleus which is not part of the cerebrum.

Scenes

Brain

  • cerebrum - The most developed part of the brain, the centre of higher cerebral functions such as speech, motor control, logical thinking, memory and certain emotions. It is divided into two hemispheres. Its external layer is the cerebral cortex, or grey matter, which covers the white matter. Subcortical nuclei of grey matter, known as basal ganglia, are embedded into the white matter.
  • cerebellum - It plays an important role in motor control.
  • brainstem - It contains centres of vital reflexes such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting. It plays an important role, among others, in regulating blood pressure and breathing. The majority of cranial nerves emerge from brainstem nuclei. The parts of the brainstem (from bottom to top) are the medulla oblongata, the pons and the mesencephalon.
  • spinal cord - It runs along the spinal column. Spinal nerves branch out from here. The centres of certain reflexes, such as the pain withdrawal reflex or the patellar reflex are located in the spinal cord.

The ventricular system and the basal ganglia

  • thalamus - Together with the hypothalamus it forms the diencephalon. It consists of several basal ganglia. It is the switching centre of all the sensory nerve fibres, except the olfactory fibres. It also plays an important role in producing certain emotions and regulating sleep.
  • caudate nucleus - It was named for its characteristic shape. It is connected to the lentiform nucleus by bridges of grey matter. As part of the extrapyramidal system, it plays an important role in motor control, learning, the processing of memory and certain emotions (e.g. love).
  • lentiform nucleus - Its internal part is called globus pallidus, the external layer is the putamen. As part of the extrapyramidal system, it plays an important role in motor control. It also plays a central role in the development of Parkinson´s disease. The lentiform nucleus also organises certain aversive reactions (hate, disgust, etc.).
  • amygdala - As part of the limbic system, it plays an important role in processing certain emotions and memory, in social interactions, aggression, sexual behaviour and probably in forming sexual identity (heterosexuality, homosexuality).
  • left lateral ventricle - Contiguous with the other ventricles. They are filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • right lateral ventricle - Contiguous with the other ventricles. They are filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • third ventricle - A flat ventricle located between the thalamuses. It is contiguous with the other ventricles, it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • fourth ventricle - A ventricle located in the brainstem. Its continuation in the spinal cord is the central canal. It is contiguous with the other ventricles, it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • cerebrum - The most developed part of the brain, the centre of higher cerebral functions such as speech, motor control, logical thinking, memory and certain emotions. It is divided into two hemispheres. Its external layer is the cerebral cortex, or grey matter, which covers the white matter. Subcortical nuclei of grey matter, known as basal ganglia, are embedded into the white matter.
  • cerebellum - It plays an important role in motor control.
  • brainstem - It contains centres of vital reflexes such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting. It also plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and breathing. Cranial nerves branch out from its basal ganglia. The parts of the brainstem (from bottom to top) are the medulla oblongata, the pons and the mesencephalon.
  • hypothalamus and pituitary gland - The hypothalamus (along with the thalamus) is part of the diencephalon. It is the centre of the hormonal system and plays an important role in regulating certain vegetative functions, such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, feeling full. The pituitary gland (or hypophysis) is an important gland of the endocrine system. Its hormones regulate the secretion of other glands.

Parts of the brain

Section

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Parts of the human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum, which is divided into lobes.

The human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum.

Nervous system

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and ganglia.

Hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The Hypothalamic-pituitary axis is the regulating centre of our endocrine system.

Anatomy of the spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system running inside the spinal column from which spinal nerves branch out.

Cortical organisation of speech

Producing speech requires the synchronised operation of several cortical centres.

Neurons, nervous tissue

Neurons are cells specialised for transmitting electric signals.

Synaptic transmission

Neurons transmit electrical signals via chemical and electrical synapses.

The skull and the spine

The two main parts of the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord are protected by the skull and the spinal column.

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