The history of human migration

The history of human migration

The migration of large human populations began in Ancient times.

History

Keywords

society, human geography, population, population growth rate, migration, immigration, kivándorlás, emigration, modern age, antiquity, prehistory, Middle Ages, modern history, mankind, settlement, Distribution, discovery, shipping, Római Birodalom, colonisation, gyarmatok, slave, slavery, human trafficking, trade, colony, World War II, population exchange, Earth, Earth globe, country, countries, borders, Israel, Palestine, Europe, India, Pakistan, United States of America, Africa, Asia, Atlanti-óceán, Homo sapiens, afroamerican, migrant, history

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Scenes

The spread of Homo sapiens

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • North America
  • Central America
  • South America
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Indian Ocean
  • Antarctica
  • the "birthplace of humankind" - According to the most widely accepted theory, modern humans originated in eastern Africa and began to disperse throughout the world about 130 thousand years ago.
  • 130–60 thousand years ago
  • 60–40 thousand years ago
  • 40–20 thousand years ago
  • 20–13 thousand years ago

Modern humans are members of the Homo sapiens species. The 'wise man' had evolved in East Africa, then began to disperse throughout the world about 130 thousand years ago. First, humans populated Asia and Australia, then Europe and the Pacific region, then finally, the Americas, about 20,000–13,000 years ago.

The Migration Period (4th–5th c.)

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • 256–260
  • 253–269
  • 259–261
  • 268–282
  • 275
  • 375
  • 390
  • 397
  • 400
  • 415
  • 429
  • 450
  • 455
  • 488

According to the most widely accepted theory, the migration of large human populations, which began in the 4th century, may have been triggered by overpopulation or climate change. Many researchers consider the advance of the Huns as the main driving force behind the domino effect.

The complex series of events involving many peoples led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the establishment of Barbarian kingdoms.

The Age of Exploration and Colonisation (15th–18th c.)

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • North America
  • Central America
  • South America
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Indian Ocean
  • 1487–1488 - Bartolomeu Dias (Portuguese)
  • 1492–1493 - Christopher Columbus (Italian)
  • 1497–1498 - Vasco da Gama (Portuguese)
  • 1501–1502 - Amerigo Vespucci (Italian)
  • 1519–1522 - Fernão de Magalhães - Fernando Magellan (Portuguese)
  • 1534 - Jacques Cartier (French)
  • 1578–1580 - Francis Drake (English)
  • 1596–1597 - Willem Barents (Dutch)
  • 1610–1611 - Henry Hudson (English)
  • 1642–1643 - Abel Janszoon Tasman (Dutch)
  • 1644 - Abel Janszoon Tasman (Dutch)

A great many factors lie behind the series of events called the great geographical discoveries. These include shortage of arable land and food due to overpopulation, hunger for gold, the quest for long-distance trade in the hope of earning great profits, intention to conquer and the curious and adventurous human nature.
The Portuguese and the Spanish were responsible for the first wave of discoveries, while the second wave was dominated by the English, French and Dutch. The conquered areas became colonies, politically and economically dependent on the mother countries.

Slave trade

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • North America
  • Central America
  • South America
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • approx. 12,500,000 people

The slave trade from Africa primarily to the Americas is also called 'African holocaust' or 'black holocaust'. It was the largest forced migration of people over the longest distance in history.

Slave traders transported approximately 15 million African people to other continents, mainly to American plantations and mines. During the violent round-ups, at least twice as many people died as the number of people deported.

Colonial Empires (early 20th century)

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • North America
  • Central America
  • South America
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Indian Ocean

One of the consequences of the great geographical discoveries was the creation of colonies. The majority of American colonies gained independence from their European mother countries in the first half of the 19th century.
However, even at the beginning of the 20th century, the colonial map of the world was very diverse. The period lasting from around 1870 until the outbreak of the 'Great War', i.e. almost half a century, is called the era of imperialism.
At this point in history, a new race began among the Great Powers for the redivision of the world. The struggle for colonies affected mostly the African continent.

The Great Atlantic Migration (19th–20th c.) and the 'Great Migration' (1910–1970)

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • North America
  • Central America
  • South America
  • Atlantic Ocean

Huge masses of people crossed the Atlantic to America between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Around 40-45 million people emigrated for economical and political reasons. Most of them hoped for a better life for themselves and their families in the 'promised land'. Although this phenomenon affected all European countries, one-third of the migrants originated from the United Kingdom. The main destination was the US, where approximately 33 million immigrants settled between 1820 and 1924.

One of the main targets of the African slave trade that started in the 16th century was the British colonies of North America.
However, most of the free descendants of the slaves who had been transported to America by ships lived in the southern states of the US.
At the beginning of the 20th century, a part of the Afro-American population living there moved to the large cities of the West Coast, the East Coast and the Great Lakes region, in the hope of a better life.

Post-World War II migration

  • FRG
  • GDR
  • Austria
  • Poland
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Finland
  • Sweden
  • Soviet Union
  • Hungary
  • Yugoslavia
  • Italy
  • Bulgaria
  • Turkey

World War II had a number of significant consequences. One of them is the migration of populations in several places on Earth.

The most important reason for European migration was the redrawing of the map of the continent. The largest-scale migration occurred among German communities. Behind the series of events, affecting approx. 12 million people, lied the decision of the victorious anti-fascist powers that all Germans living in European countries be repatriated to Germany which had come under allied control.

India, the jewel in the crown of the British Empire, gained independence from Great Britain in 1947. However, the Indians’ joy for having won independence was soon clouded as the already existing religious conflicts between the Hindu and the Muslim populations surfaced. The conflicts led to war and the migration of millions of people between India and Pakistan.

Today's Israel was established in 1948. Since the creation of Israel, the region has been characterised by continuous political and religious conflicts. Large-scale migrations occurred between Israel and the surrounding Arab countries on several occasions. As Jews immigrated to Israel, the Palestinian population was forced to flee to neighbouring countries. Approx. 5 million Palestinian refugees were registered in 2010, while nearly 3 million Jews moved to Israel between 1948 and 2010.

The present European migration crisis

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Mediterranean Sea

The European refugee crisis is one of today's greatest humanitarian problems.
Masses of people are fleeing from political and religious persecution, armed conflicts and unbearable economic conditions and are trying to reach the territory of the European Union. The refugees originate mainly from the Middle East, North and East Africa and Central Asia. To reach their destination, they travel across the Mediterranean and through the Balkans.

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