Pyridine (C₅H₅N)

Pyridine (C₅H₅N)

A basic heterocyclic organic compound; a colourless, pungent toxic liquid.



pyridine, nitrogen-containing organic compound, heterocyclic compound, heteroatom, dipole, toxic, pyridine ring, coal tar, vitamin, organic chemistry, chemistry

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Pyridine C₅H₅N


Molar mass: 79.10 g/mol

Melting point: -42 °C

Boiling point: 115.5 °C

Density: 0.9819 g/cm³

Heat of combustion: -2,351.7 kJ/mol


Pyridine is a colourless, toxic liquid with an unpleasant odour. It is hygroscopic, that is, it binds atmospheric moisture when exposed to air for a longer period of time. The molecule is a dipole, so its boiling point is higher than that of benzene. It dissolves well in water and organic solvents, its aqueous solution is slightly alkalinic. It forms salts with acids, which dissolve well in water.

Occurrence and production

It occurs in large quantities in coal tar. It is produced in a reaction of acetaldehyde with ammonia.


Pyridine is used in to denature alcohol; it is also used in the production of medicines, pesticides and colourings, and as a solvent for organic and inorganic compounds.



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Aniline (C₆H₅NH₂)

The simplest aromatic amine. Its scientific name is phenylamine.

Benzene (C₆H₆)

Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Pyrimidine (C₄H₄N₂)

A heterocyclic organic compound, its derivatives are thymine, cytosine and uracil.

Benzoic acid (C₆H₅COOH)

The simplest of the aromatic carboxylic acids.

Imidazole (C₃H₄N₂)

A biologically and practically important organic compound.

Naphtalene (C₁₀H₈)

The simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Pyrrole (C₄H₅N)

A heterocyclic organic compound.

Styrene (vinyl benzene) (C₈H₈)

A colourless liquid with an odour similar to benzene. The monomer of polystyrene.

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