Oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus

Oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus

The first section of the gastrointestinal tract comprises the oral cavity, the pharynx and the oesophagus.

Biology

Keywords

decomposer, digestion, digestive tract, feeding, esophagus, mouth cavity, palate, food, stomach, pharynx, tongue, nyál, peristalsis, cardia, swallowing, salivary glands, mucous membrane, biology, organ system, human

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Scenes

Location

Digestive system

  • stomach - Proteins are digested in this organ. Gastric juice is strongly acidic.
  • small intestine - Proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are digested here. The absorption of digested nutrients takes place here.
  • colon - Water and minerals are digested in this organ. Its bacterium flora produces vitamins K and B.
  • rectum
  • liver - It plays an important role in detoxification and produces bile, which aids the digestion of lipids.
  • pancreas - It produces pancreatic juice, which digests lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine. It also secretes insulin hormone, which acts to lower the blood glucose level.
  • oesophagus
  • oral cavity
  • pharynx

Oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus

  • mouth
  • oral cavity
  • tongue - It mixes the food with saliva, pushes it to the teeth for chewing, and plays an important role in swallowing and talking.
  • teeth - They crush and grind food.
  • soft palate - It blocks the passage from the pharyngeal cavity to the nasal cavity during swallowing.
  • hard palate
  • diaphragma oris
  • pharynx
  • oesophagus

The first section of the gastrointestinal tract is where the food is crushed and ground, then propelled towards the stomach. Chemical digestion also starts here.
Food that enters the oral cavity is crushed and ground by the teeth, through biting and chewing. The tongue then mixes the food with saliva. The bolus is then pushed to the oesophagus via the pharynx.

Salivary glands

  • Salivary glands - Their most important role is to produce large amounts of saliva, necessary for forming the bolus. Saliva contains water, ions of inorganic salts, mucin, alpha amylase enzyme and other proteins.
  • sublingual gland
  • submandibular gland
  • parotid gland

The saliva produced by the salivary glands serves to moisten the chewed food to the consistency suitable for swallowing.
Saliva contains water, ions of inorganic salts, mucin, enzymes and other proteins. Amylase, the digestive enzyme found in saliva, starts the digestion of starch in the oral cavity.

Swallowing

The tongue pushes the bolus towards the pharynx during swallowing. At the same time, the passage from the pharyngeal cavity to the nasal cavity is blocked, although food can enter it when we sneeze.

The epiglottis covers the larynx when we swallow and prevents the bolus from entering the trachea. If food nevertheless enters the trachea, the cough reflex is activated to remove foreign material from the respiratory tract. The peristaltic motion of the oesophagus ensures that the bolus proceeds to the stomach.

Animation

  • oral cavity
  • tongue - It mixes the food with saliva, pushes it to the teeth for chewing, and plays an important role in swallowing and talking.
  • teeth - They crush and grind food.
  • pharynx
  • oesophagus
  • Salivary glands - Their most important role is to produce large amounts of saliva, necessary for forming the bolus. Saliva contains water, ions of inorganic salts, mucin, alpha amylase enzyme and other proteins.
  • sublingual gland
  • submandibular gland
  • parotid gland

Narration

The first section of the gastrointestinal tract is where the food is crushed and ground, then propelled towards the stomach. Chemical digestion also starts here.
Food that enters the oral cavity is crushed and ground by the teeth, through biting and chewing. The tongue then mixes the food with saliva. The bolus is then pushed to the oesophagus via the pharynx.

The saliva produced by the salivary glands serves to moisten the chewed food to the consistency suitable for swallowing.
Saliva contains water, ions of inorganic salts, mucin, enzymes and other proteins. Amylase, the digestive enzyme found in saliva, starts the digestion of starch in the oral cavity.

The tongue pushes the bolus towards the pharynx during swallowing. At the same time, the passage from the pharyngeal cavity to the nasal cavity is blocked, although food can enter it when we sneeze.

The epiglottis covers the larynx when we swallow and prevents the bolus from entering the trachea. If food nevertheless enters the trachea, the cough reflex is activated to remove foreign material from the respiratory tract. The peristaltic motion of the oesophagus ensures that the bolus proceeds to the stomach.

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