Oil tanker

Oil tanker

Oil tankers appeared in the late 19th century; today they are among the largest ships.

Technology

Keywords

Tanker, oil tanker, tanker, oil deposit, environmental pollution, natural disaster, transport, petroleum, disaster, water transport, maritime transport, deck, radar, raft bridge, watercraft, ocean, sea, economy, technology, transportation

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Scenes

Oil tanker

Since ancient times sea travel has played a prominent role in trade and travel (and in wars as well). As a result of the Age of Discoveries, forms of marine transport were completely transformed at the beginning of the Modern Age, but it was in the second half of the 20th century that a true revolution took place in this mode of transport.

The first tanker ship, designed to transport bulk liquid cargo, was built in the 1880s. Then, after WW II, large numbers of tankers and container ships were produced to transport bulk liquids (mostly crude oil) and enormous quantities of various goods in intermodal containers.

The emergence of this new type of vessels led to a decrease in loading losses, loading time and costs. The only drawback is long delivery time. These gigantic ships travel all over the world, their shipping routes start in similarly gigantic ports.

Top view

The average length of oil tankers is between 200–400 metres, their width about 30–70 metres, while their draught is about 15–30 metres. Their speed is between 15–16 knots (28–30 km/h).

The most important considerations in the design of the hull are to provide balance and safety, and to maximise cargo capacity. The largest oil tankers were built in the 1970s partly for economic (high oil prices) and partly for political reasons (the Suez Canal was closed). The largest of them, the 456 metres long Seawise Giant, was built in 1979.

Deck

Today, oil tankers are the second most important means of transporting oil after pipelines. The primary consideration in the design of the hull is functionality and safety. The bridge, the cabin of the crew and the fuel tanks are all located in the rear of the tanker, while cargo and ballast tanks occupy the largest part of the ship. Most of the deck is flat with pipelines, oil transfer hoses, valves and a passageway on it.

Dimensions

  • Types - DWT: deadweight tonnage, a measure of how much mass a ship can carry safely, including the combined mass of the cargo, fuel, ballast, fresh water, and the crew. It does not include the mass of the ship.
  • Capacity
  • Panamax: 60,000 – 80,000 DWT
  • Aframax: 80,000 – 120,000 DWT
  • Suezmax: 120,000 – 200,000 DWT
  • VLCC: 200,000 – 315,000 DWT
  • ULCC: 315,000 – 520,000 DWT
  • 3,975,000 - The number of cars with 60-litre fuel tanks that could be filled up from the cargo of a Suezmax oil tanker.

Oil tankers are categorised according to size. Supertankers, including very large crude carriers (VLCC) and ultra large crude carriers (ULCC), can dock only in a few ports in the world. Due to their size, these tankers can navigate through only very few straits and channels. On the other hand, smaller tankers, including Panamax, Aframax and Suezmax tankers, can dock in smaller ports and navigate through narrower and shallower straits and channels. (Their names refer to their routes, that is, to the canal or strait they can pass through).

Incidents

  • Major oil tanker incidents
  • Atlantic Empress - Amount of oil spilt: 287,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 July 1979
  • ABT Summer - Amount of oil spilt: 260,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 28 May 1991
  • Castillo de Bellver - Amount of oil spilt: 252,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 8 June 1983
  • Amoco Cadiz - Amount of oil spilt: 223,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 16 March 1978
  • Haven - Amount of oil spilt: 144,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 11 April 1991
  • Odyssey - Amount of oil spilt: 132,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 10 November 1988
  • Torrey Canyon - Amount of oil spilt: 119,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 18 March 1967
  • Sea Star - Amount of oil spilt: 115,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 December 1972
  • Urquiola - Amount of oil spilt: 100,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 12 May 1976
  • Irenes Serenade - Amount of oil spilt: 100,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 23 February 1980
  • Hawaiian Patriot - Amount of oil spilt: 95,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 23 February 1977
  • Independenta - Amount of oil spilt: 95,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 15 November 1979
  • Jakob Maersk - Amount of oil spilt: 88,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 29 January 1975
  • M/V Braer - Amount of oil spilt: 85,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 5 January 1993
  • Khark5 - Amount of oil spilt: 80,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 December 1989
  • Aegean Sea - Amount of oil spilt: 74,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 3 December 1992
  • Sea Empress - Amount of oil spilt: 72,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 15 February 1996
  • Nova - Amount of oil spilt: 70,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 6 December 1985
  • Katina P. - Amount of oil spilt: 67,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 April 1992
  • M/V Prestige - Amount of oil spilt: 64,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 15 November 2002
  • Exxon Valdez - Amount of oil spilt: 37,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 23 January 1989
  • Hebei Spirit - Amount of oil spilt: 11,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 7 December 2007

Animation

  • Øresund
  • Bosphorus
  • Suez Canal
  • Strait of Hormuz
  • Bab el-Mandeb
  • Strait of Malacca
  • Panama Canal
  • Cape of Good Hope
  • Arabian Peninsula
  • Nigeria
  • Libya
  • Venezuela
  • North Sea oil field
  • Major oil tanker incidents
  • Atlantic Empress - Amount of oil spilt: 287,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 July 1979
  • ABT Summer - Amount of oil spilt: 260,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 28 May 1991
  • Castillo de Bellver - Amount of oil spilt: 252,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 8 June 1983
  • Amoco Cadiz - Amount of oil spilt: 223,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 16 March 1978
  • Haven - Amount of oil spilt: 144,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 11 April 1991
  • Odyssey - Amount of oil spilt: 132,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 10 November 1988
  • Torrey Canyon - Amount of oil spilt: 119,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 18 March 1967
  • Sea Star - Amount of oil spilt: 115,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 December 1972
  • Urquiola - Amount of oil spilt: 100,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 12 May 1976
  • Irenes Serenade - Amount of oil spilt: 100,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 23 February 1980
  • Hawaiian Patriot - Amount of oil spilt: 95,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 23 February 1977
  • Independenta - Amount of oil spilt: 95,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 15 November 1979
  • Jakob Maersk - Amount of oil spilt: 88,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 29 January 1975
  • M/V Braer - Amount of oil spilt: 85,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 5 January 1993
  • Khark5 - Amount of oil spilt: 80,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 December 1989
  • Aegean Sea - Amount of oil spilt: 74,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 3 December 1992
  • Sea Empress - Amount of oil spilt: 72,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 15 February 1996
  • Nova - Amount of oil spilt: 70,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 6 December 1985
  • Katina P. - Amount of oil spilt: 67,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 19 April 1992
  • M/V Prestige - Amount of oil spilt: 64,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 15 November 2002
  • Exxon Valdez - Amount of oil spilt: 37,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 23 January 1989
  • Hebei Spirit - Amount of oil spilt: 11,000 tonnes, date of the incident: 7 December 2007
  • Types - DWT: deadweight tonnage, a measure of how much mass a ship can carry safely, including the combined mass of the cargo, fuel, ballast, fresh water, and the crew. It does not include the mass of the ship.
  • Capacity
  • Panamax: 60,000 – 80,000 DWT
  • Aframax: 80,000 – 120,000 DWT
  • Suezmax: 120,000 – 200,000 DWT
  • VLCC: 200,000 – 315,000 DWT
  • ULCC: 315,000 – 520,000 DWT
  • 3,975,000 - The number of cars with 60-litre fuel tanks that could be filled up from the cargo of a Suezmax oil tanker.

Construction

  • bow
  • rudder
  • radar
  • masthead light
  • funnel
  • bridge
  • propeller
  • pipelines

Cutaway

The Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in 1989 off the coast of Alaska, spilling about 37,000 tonnes of oil into the water. As a result of the incident, double-hulled ships were introduced and have been used since then. With this new design, oil is pumped into the inner hull, thus protecting the environment from being polluted in case of any incident. When the cargo hold is full, the ballast tanks in the space between the walls of the double hull are empty; however, when the cargo hold is empty or only partly loaded, the ballast tanks are filled with a required amount of ballast water.

Routes

  • Øresund
  • Bosphorus
  • Suez Canal
  • Strait of Hormuz
  • Bab el-Mandeb
  • Strait of Malacca
  • Panama Canal
  • Cape of Good Hope
  • Arabian Peninsula
  • Nigeria
  • Libya
  • Venezuela
  • North Sea oil field

Narration

Since ancient times sea travel has played a prominent role in trade and travel. As a result of the Age of Discoveries, forms of marine transport were completely transformed at the beginning of the Modern Age, but it was in the second half of the 20th century that a true revolution took place in this mode of transport.

The first tanker ship, designed to transport bulk liquid cargo, was built in the 1880s. Then, after WW II, large numbers of tankers and container ships were produced to transport bulk liquids and enormous quantities of various goods in intermodal containers.

The emergence of this new type of vessels led to a decrease in loading losses, loading time and costs. The only drawback is long delivery time. These gigantic ships travel all over the world, their shipping routes start in similarly gigantic ports.

The average length of oil tankers is between 200–400 metres, their width about 30–70 metres, while their draught is about 15–30 metres. Their speed is between 15–16 knots.

The most important considerations in the design of the hull are to provide balance and safety, and to maximise cargo capacity. The largest oil tankers were built in the 1970s partly for economic and partly for political reasons. The largest of them, the 456 metres long Seawise Giant, was built in 1979.

Today, oil tankers are the second most important means of transporting oil after pipelines. The primary consideration in the design of the hull is functionality and safety. The bridge, the cabin of the crew and the fuel tanks are all located in the rear of the tanker, while cargo and ballast tanks occupy the largest part of the ship. Most of the deck is flat with pipelines, oil transfer hoses, valves and a passageway on it.

The Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in 1989 off the coast of Alaska, spilling about 37,000 tonnes of oil into the water. As a result of the incident, double-hulled ships were introduced and have been used since then. With this new design, oil is pumped into the inner hull, thus protecting the environment from being polluted in case of any incident. When the cargo hold is full, the ballast tanks in the space between the walls of the double hull are empty; however, when the cargo hold is empty or only partly loaded, the ballast tanks are filled with a required amount of ballast water.

Oil tankers are categorised according to size. Supertankers, including very large crude carriers (VLCC) and ultra large crude carriers (ULCC), can dock only in a few ports in the world. Due to their size, these tankers can navigate through only very few straits and channels. On the other hand, smaller tankers, including Panamax, Aframax and Suezmax tankers, can dock in smaller ports and navigate through narrower and shallower straits and channels.

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