Nervous system

Nervous system

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and ganglia.

Biology

Keywords

nervous system, brain, cerebrum, cranial nerve, cerebellum, brain stem, nerve, spinal cord, diencephalon, ganglion, skull, spine, human, biology

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Scenes

Nervous system

Parts

  • cerebrum - The most developed part of the brain, which contains centres of high level brain functions such as speech, motor control, logical thinking, memory and certain emotions. The brain is divided into two hemispheres. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex or grey matter, the inner part is called white matter, which has subcortical masses of cerebral grey matter called basal nuclei.
  • cranial nerves (12 pairs) - There are mixed nerves which contain both sensory and motor fibres, but there are purely sensory and motor nerves too.
  • cerebellum - Plays an important role in motor control.
  • brainstem - It contains centres of crucial reflexes, such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting. It plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and breathing. It is the starting point of cranial nerves. The brain stem is composed of the medulla oblongata, the pons and the mesencephalon.
  • spinal cord - It is located in the spinal column; this is where spinal nerves emerge. It also contains the centres of certain reflexes, such as the pain withdrawal reflex or the patellar reflex.
  • spinal nerves (31 pairs) - Mixed nerves; they contain both sensory and motor fibres.

Animation

  • cerebrum - The most developed part of the brain, which contains centres of high level brain functions such as speech, motor control, logical thinking, memory and certain emotions. The brain is divided into two hemispheres. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called cerebral cortex or grey matter, the inner part is called white matter, which has subcortical masses of cerebral grey matter called basal nuclei.
  • cranial nerves (12 pairs) - There are mixed nerves which contain both sensory and motor fibres, but there are sensory or motor nerves too.
  • cerebellum - It plays an important role in motor control.
  • brainstem - It contains centres of important reflexes, such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting. It plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and breathing. It is the starting point of cranial nerves. The brain stem is composed of the medulla oblongata, the pons and the mesencephalon.
  • spinal cord - It is located in the spinal column; this is where spinal nerves emerge. It also contains the centres of certain reflexes, such as the pain withdrawal reflex or the patellar reflex.
  • spinal nerves (31 pairs) - Mixed nerves; they contain both sensory and motor fibres.
  • brain
  • diencephalon

Narration

The nervous system controls the functions of our bodies through electric signals. It is divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The main components of the central nervous system are the brain and the spinal cord.

The brain is located in the cranium; its main regions are the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the cerebellum and the brain stem.

The brain stem continues in the spinal cord within the spinal column. The peripheral nervous system is composed of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which are responsible for carrying information between the central nervous system and other parts of the body.

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Anatomy of the spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system running inside the spinal column from which spinal nerves branch out.

Parts of the human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum, which is divided into lobes.

The human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum.

The ventricular system and the main brain regions

This animation demonstrates the internal structure of the brain.

Cortical organisation of speech

Producing speech requires the synchronised operation of several cortical centres.

Patellar reflex

The reflex triggered by the stretching of the thigh extensor muscle is the patellar reflex.

The withdrawal reflex

The withdrawal reflex is a spinal reflex that ensures moving away from potentially damaging stimuli.

Adrenaline (advanced)

Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone produced in our body in stressful situations and plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response.

Circulatory system

Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, while pulmonary circulation carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

Colour vision deficiency

The inability to differentiate certain shades of colour is called colour vision deficiency.

Connective tissues

Connective tissues include loose and dense connective tissues, adipose tissue, blood, tendon and bone tissue.

Endocrine system

Glands of the endocrine system secrete hormones into the blood.

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Hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The Hypothalamic-pituitary axis is the regulating centre of our endocrine system.

Limbic system

The limbic system plays an important role in forming emotions and in learning.

Muscles of the upper arm

The arms are moved by flexor and extensor muscles.

Neurons, nervous tissue

Neurons are cells specialised for transmitting electric signals.

Structure of skeletal muscles

This animation demonstrates the fine molecular structure and mechanism of muscles.

Synaptic transmission

Neurons transmit electrical signals via chemical and electrical synapses.

The heart

The heart is the central pump of the cardiovascular system beating several billion times over our lifetime.

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Vertebrate brain evolution

During the evolution of vertebrates the relative development of brain areas has changed.

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This animation introduces body parts on a male anatomical model.

Human body (male)

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Parts of the human body

This animation demonstrates the parts of the head, the torso and the limbs.

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The position and acceleration of the head is detected by the inner ear.

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