Human body (male)

Human body (male)

This animation introduces the most important organ systems of the human body.

Biology

Keywords

body, male body, human body, organism, digestive system, respiratory system, skin, cardiovascular system, muscles, skeleton, lymphatic circulation, lymphatic system, excretory system, genitals, nervous system, endocrine system, reproductive system, digestive tract, respiration, integument, circulatory system, digestion, immune system, removal, man, skull, reproductive organ, sensory organ, synapse, systemic circulation, spine, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, mouth cavity, nasal cavity, lung, trachea, larynx, aorta, heart, vein, tonsil, lymph vessel, lymph node, kidney, bladder, ureter, urethra, testicle, seminal vesicle, prostate, brain, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, bile, spinal cord, nerve, penis, thymus, limb, upper limb, lower limb, chest, liver, pulmonary circulation, adrenal gland, hormone, organ system, organ, biology, human

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Scenes

Skin

The skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin of an average adult has a surface area of about 1.5 square metres and a mass of about 12 kg, including the hypodermal fat. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in thermoregulation.
The skin is our largest sense organ; its receptors detect heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Skeletal muscles

  • muscles of the head
  • chest muscles
  • abdominal muscles
  • calf muscles
  • muscles of the neck
  • muscles of the upper arm
  • muscles of the lower arm
  • thigh muscles
  • muscles of the back

Skeletal muscles are the active organs of locomotion. There are about 350 skeletal muscles in the human body, making up about 50% of the body mass. There are long, short, flat and ring-shaped muscles. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons.

Skeleton

The skeleton of an adult human consists of 206 bones. Bones are rigid and flexible at the same time in order to carry a large amount of weight. Bone metabolism is slow, so bones heal slowly. A broken bone takes at least 6 weeks to heal. To prevent osteoporosis a proper daily intake of calcium (1,500 mg for adolescents) must be ensured.

Digestive system

  • stomach - Proteins are digested in this organ. Gastric juice is strongly acidic.
  • small intestine - Proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are digested in this organ. Digested nutrients are absorbed here.
  • colon - Water and minerals are digested here. Its bacterium flora produce vitamins K and B.
  • rectum
  • liver - It plays an important role in detoxification and produces bile, which aids the digestion of lipids.
  • pancreas - It produces pancreatic juice, which digests lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine. It also secretes insulin hormone, which acts to lower the blood glucose level.
  • esophagus
  • oral cavity
  • gallbladder - A hollow, pear-shaped organ where bile is stored temporarily. While stored here, the bile becomes concentrated.

The digestive system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Food is crushed in the mouth by the teeth; the digestion of carbohydrates begins here too. Proteins are digested in the stomach, where the environment is highly acidic. Then in the small intestine all three types of nutrients, that is, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are absorbed. Pancreatic juice, which is secreted by the pancreas and contains digestive enzymes, is emptied there, as well as bile, which is secreted by the liver and aids in the digestion of lipids. The colon absorbs water and minerals; its bacterium flora produces vitamins.

Respiratory system

Catabolic processes in our body require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide both take place in the lungs. In a relaxed state we inhale about 16 times a minute and exchange about half a litre of air each time. Lung cancer is a serious illness of the lungs; smoking greatly increases the chance of its development.

Cardiovascular system

  • heart - It pumps blood in the pulmonary and systemic circulation.
  • aorta - The main artery of the systemic circulation, it starts in the left ventricle.

The network of blood vessels in our body form the cardiovascular system. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system that provides oxygen-rich blood to all the organs in the body and transports carbon dioxide away. Pulmonary circulation transports carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart into the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the heart. The blood is pumped through the blood vessels by the contractions of the heart. The health of our heart and blood vessels can be retained by doing regular exercise, sticking to a healthy, low-fat diet and avoiding smoking.

Nervous system

  • brain - It is located in the skull.
  • spinal cord - It is located in the spinal column.
  • nerves - They consist of nerve fibres that connect the central nervous system with various organs.
  • temporalis muscle
  • zygomatic muscles
  • masseter muscle
  • sternocleidomastoid muscle
  • orbic­u­laris oris muscle
  • frontalis muscle
  • orbicularis oculi muscle
  • risorius muscle
  • platysma muscle
  • depressor anguli oris muscle

The nervous system, together with the endocrine system, is responsible for the coordinated, regulated functioning of the body. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves, which transmit information between the central nervous system and the organs as electric signals. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which emerge directly from the brain, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

Excretory system

  • kidneys - Their primary function is the removal of harmful materials and waste from the bloodstream.
  • ureter
  • bladder - It stores urine until urination.
  • urethra

Unnecessary and harmful materials are removed from the body by the kidneys. They produce about 1.5 litres of urine per day. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and is then released from the body through the urethra. A common illness of the urinary system is pyelitis, or inflammation of the renal pelvis. Its symptoms include protein in the urine. Kidney stones are often formed in the kidneys. These might cause small injuries and therefore blood in the urine.

Animation

Lymphatic system

  • tonsil
  • spleen - It plays an important role in the maturing of white blood cells, thus in the functioning of the immune system.
  • thymus - It plays an important role in the maturing of white blood cells, thus in the functioning of the immune system.
  • lymph node - It plays an important role in the maturing of white blood cells, thus in the functioning of the immune system.
  • thoracic duct - It drains into the left subclavian vein, where lymph is mixed with the blood and transferred into the heart.
  • lymph vessel

Lymph is the fluid found in the interstitial spaces, also known as the tissue spaces. It is produced from blood, by osmosis through the walls of capillaries. Metabolic products are also drained in the lymph. Lymph is carried into the subclavian vein by lymph vessels, while passing through the lymph nodes. Pathogens carried by the lymph meet white blood cells living in the lymph nodes, which is important for the operation of the immune system. Other important lymphatic organs include the thymus, the spleen and the tonsils: they also play an important role in the maturation of white blood cells and in immune defence.

Reproductive system

  • testicle - It produces sperm and testosterone (male sex hormone), which promotes sperm maturation, and the development of a masculine figure and body hair.
  • epididymis - It stores the sperm produced in the testicles.
  • vas deferens
  • seminal vesicle - It plays an important role in the formation of semen.
  • prostate - It plays an important role in the formation of semen. Also called prostate.

Genitalia are responsible for reproduction, they produce gametes. During fertilisation the egg unites with a sperm, and they form a zygote from which the embryo develops. The reproductive glands in males are the testes, which produce sperm. Sperm is stored in the epididymis; during ejaculation sperm is ejected together with semen through the urethra. Semen is produced by the prostate and the seminal vesicles.

Endocrine system

  • parathyroid glands - They secrete the parathyroid hormone (parathormone), which increases calcium concentration in the blood. Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland, has the opposite effect: it reduces calcium concentration in the blood.
  • adrenal gland - It consists of a cortex and a medulla. The cortex secretes hormones increasing sodium level and glucose level in the blood. The medulla produces epinephrine (adrenaline), which is a stress hormone, playing an important role in the acute stress response.
  • testicle - It produces sperm and testosterone (male sex hormone), which promotes sperm maturation, and the development of a masculine figure and body hair.
  • pancreas - It secretes insulin, which reduces glucose level in the blood. Insulin deficiency causes diabetes.
  • thyroid gland - It secretes T4 (tiroxine) hormone, which increases biological oxidation. It plays an important role in the normal development of the brain and in normal growth. An excessive production of thyroid hormones causes Graves´disease, while hypothyroidism causes goitre or cretinism (caused by congenital hypothyroidism).
  • pituitary gland (hypophysis) - Together with the hypothalamus, its makes up the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the centre of our hormonal system.

Hormones are produced by the glands of the endocrine system. Adrenaline, for example, is secreted by the adrenal glands, insulin by the pancreas, and thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The centre of the endocrine system is the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus produces hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, where they stimulate production of pituitary hormones. These hormones stimulate other endocrine glands: the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the reproductive glands. The pancreas is not regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Body parts

  • head
  • neck
  • torso
  • limbs
  • shoulder
  • upper arm
  • forearm
  • hand
  • thigh
  • shin
  • foot
  • chest
  • abdomen
  • pelvis
  • back
  • waist
  • buttocks
  • eye
  • nose
  • mouth
  • ear
  • forehead
  • scalp
  • neck
  • nape
  • chin
  • shoulder
  • chest
  • abdomen
  • pelvis
  • back
  • waist
  • buttocks
  • navel
  • upper arm
  • forearm
  • hand
  • elbow
  • wrist
  • fingers
  • thigh
  • shin
  • foot
  • knee
  • ankle
  • sole
  • penis
  • scrotum

Narration

The skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin covering an average adult, has a surface area of about 1.5 square metres and a mass of about 12 kg, including the hypodermal fat layer. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in temperature regulation.
The skin is our largest sensory organ; its receptors sense heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Skeletal muscles are major organs of locomotion. There are about 350 skeletal muscles in the human body, making up 50% of body mass. There are long, short, flat and ring-shaped muscles. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons.

The skeleton of an adult human consists of 206 bones. Bones are rigid and flexible at the same time in order to carry a large amount of weight. Bone metabolism is slow, so bones heal slowly. A broken bone takes at least 6 weeks to heal. To prevent osteoporosis a proper daily intake of calcium (1,500 mg for adolescents) must be ensured.

The digestive system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Food is crushed in the mouth by the teeth; digestion of carbohydrates can then begin. Proteins are digested in the highly acidic stomach. Then in the small intestine all three types of nutrients, that is, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are absorbed. Pancreatic juice, which is secreted by the pancreas and contains digestive enzymes, is emptied there, as well as bile, which is secreted by the liver and aids in the digestion of lipids. The colon absorbs water and minerals; its bacterium flora produces vitamins.

Catabolic processes in our body require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide both take place in the lungs. In a relaxed state we inhale about 16 times a minute and exchange about half a litre of air each time. Lung cancer is a serious illness of the lungs; smoking greatly increases the chance of its development.

The network of blood vessels in our body form the cardiovascular system. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system that provides oxygen-rich blood to all the organs in the body and transports carbon dioxide away. Pulmonary circulation transports carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart into the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the heart. The blood is pumped through the blood vessels by the contractions of the heart. The health of our heart and blood vessels can be retained by doing regular exercise, sticking to a healthy, low-fat diet and avoiding smoking.

Unnecessary and harmful materials are removed from the body by the kidneys. They produce about 1.5 litres of urine per day. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and is then released from the body through the urethra. A common illness of the urinary system is pyelitis, or inflammation of the renal pelvis. Its symptoms include protein in the urine. Kidney stones are often formed in the kidneys. These might cause small injuries and therefore blood in the urine.

The nervous system, together with the hormonal system, is responsible for the coordinated, regulated functioning of the body. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves, which transmit information between the central nervous system and the organs as electric signals. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which emerge directly from the brain, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

Hormones are produced by the glands of the endocrine system. Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal gland, insulin by the pancreas, and thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The centre of the endocrine system is the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus produces hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, where they stimulate production of further hormones. These hormones stimulate other endocrine glands: the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the reproductive glands. The pancreas is not regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Lymph is the fluid found in the interstitial spaces, also known as the tissue spaces. It is produced from blood, by osmosis through the walls of capillaries. Metabolic products are also drained in the lymph. Lymph is carried into the subclavian vein by lymph vessels, while passing through the lymph nodes. Pathogens carried by the lymph meet white blood cells living in the lymph nodes, which is important for the operation of the immune system. Other important lymphatic organs include the thymus, the spleen and the tonsils: they also play an important role in the maturation of white blood cells and in immune defence.

Genitalia are responsible for reproduction, they produce gametes. During fertilisation the egg unites with a sperm, and they form a zygote from which the embryo develops. The reproductive glands in males are the testes, which produce sperm. Sperm is stored in the epididymis; during ejaculation sperm is ejected together with semen through the urethra. Semen is produced by the prostate and the seminal vesicles.

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Human body (female)

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Anatomy of the small intestine

The longest part of the digestive system, where most of the digestion and absorption takes place.

Body parts

This animation introduces body parts on a male anatomical model.

Circulatory system

Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, while pulmonary circulation carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

Human muscles

Skeletal muscles form the active part of the locomotor system: they move the bones they are attached to.

Human skeleton

Our body´s internal support structure to which skeletal muscles are attached.

Lymphatic system

Lymph vessels carry lymph to the blood vessels, while lymph nodes are integral parts of the immune system.

Nervous system

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and ganglia.

The sense organs

Organs that detect signals of the environment or of the body and transmit them to the brain as nerve impulses.

What is the human body composed of?

This scene presents the basic components of the human body.

Anatomy of the large intestine

The large intestine is the last section of our digestive track.

Female reproductive system (intermediate)

The reproductive system is a series of organs working together for the purpose of reproduction.

Gametes

The zygote is the initial cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction.

Layers of the skin; cutaneous senses

The skin is the soft outer covering of our body, its three layers are the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis.

Parts of the human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum, which is divided into lobes.

Structure of skeletal muscles

This animation demonstrates the fine molecular structure and mechanism of muscles.

The bones of the thorax

The ribs, the sternum and the spinal column form the skeleton of the chest.

The heart

The heart is the central pump of the cardiovascular system beating several billion times over our lifetime.

The human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum.

The human eye

The eye is one of our most important sense organs. When stimulated by light, electric impulses are produced by its receptors.

The skull and the spine

The two main parts of the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord are protected by the skull and the spinal column.

The upper gastrointestinal tract

During swallowing food travels from the mouth cavity into the stomach.

Anatomy of the spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system running inside the spinal column from which spinal nerves branch out.

Bones of the lower limbs

Bones of the lower limbs are connected to the trunk by the pelvis.

Bones of the upper limbs

Bones of the upper limbs form the pectoral girdle and the arms.

Parts of the human body

This animation demonstrates the parts of the head, the torso and the limbs.

The anatomy and functions of the liver

The liver is a vital organ that plays an important role in the digestion of fats, detoxification and metabolism.

The ear and the mechanism of hearing

The ear converts the vibrations of air into electric signals which are then processed by the brain.

The urinary system

The urinary system serves for the removal of harmful and useless materials from the body.

Types of bone articulations

Human bones are joined together by cartilaginous or synovial joints, sutures or they can fuse together.

Types of synovial joints

Synovial joints can be categorised by the direction of movement they allow.

Vertebrate brain evolution

During the evolution of vertebrates the relative development of brain areas has changed.

Blood vessels

The three main types of blood vessels in the human body are the arteries, the veins, and the capillaries.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the lower limbs can cause a fatal pulmonary embolism if they enter the lungs.

Female reproductive system (basic)

The reproductive system is a series of organs working together for the purpose of reproduction.

Heart attack

The cause of a heart attack is the blockage of a coronary artery. It is one the most common causes of death.

Homo erectus

The ‘upright man’ used tools and could set fire.

Knee joint

The knee joint is made up by the femur, the tibia and the kneecap.

Levels of biological organisation

This animation presents levels of biological organisation from the level of the individual organism to the level of cells.

Male reproductive system

The reproductive system consists of organs which work together for the purpose of reproduction.

Medical conditions of the spine

Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a lateral deviation.

Muscles of the upper arm

The arms are moved by flexor and extensor muscles.

Patellar reflex

The reflex triggered by the stretching of the thigh extensor muscle is the patellar reflex.

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