Human body (male)

Human body (male)

This animation introduces the most important organ systems of the human body.

Biology

Keywords

body, male body, human body, organism, digestive system, respiratory system, skin, cardiovascular system, muscles, skeleton, lymphatic circulation, lymphatic system, excretory system, genitals, nervous system, endocrine system, reproductive system, digestive tract, respiration, integument, circulatory system, digestion, immune system, removal, man, skull, reproductive organ, sensory organ, synapse, systemic circulation, spine, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, mouth cavity, nasal cavity, lung, trachea, larynx, aorta, heart, vein, tonsil, lymph vessel, lymph node, kidney, bladder, ureter, urethra, testicle, seminal vesicle, prostate, brain, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, bile, spinal cord, nerve, penis, thymus, limb, upper limb, lower limb, chest, liver, pulmonary circulation, adrenal gland, hormone, organ system, organ, biology, human

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Scenes

Skin

The skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin of an average adult has a surface area of about 1.5 square metres and a mass of about 12 kg, including the hypodermal fat. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in thermoregulation.
The skin is our largest sense organ; its receptors detect heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscles are the active organs of locomotion. There are about 350 skeletal muscles in the human body, making up about 50% of the body mass. There are long, short, flat and ring-shaped muscles. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons.

Skeleton

The skeleton of an adult human consists of 206 bones. Bones are rigid and flexible at the same time in order to carry a large amount of weight. Bone metabolism is slow, so bones heal slowly. A broken bone takes at least 6 weeks to heal. To prevent osteoporosis a proper daily intake of calcium (1,500 mg for adolescents) must be ensured.

Digestive system

The digestive system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Food is crushed in the mouth by the teeth; the digestion of carbohydrates begins here too. Proteins are digested in the stomach, where the environment is highly acidic. Then in the small intestine all three types of nutrients, that is, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are absorbed. Pancreatic juice, which is secreted by the pancreas and contains digestive enzymes, is emptied there, as well as bile, which is secreted by the liver and aids in the digestion of lipids. The colon absorbs water and minerals; its bacterium flora produces vitamins.

Respiratory system

Catabolic processes in our body require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide both take place in the lungs. In a relaxed state we inhale about 16 times a minute and exchange about half a litre of air each time. Lung cancer is a serious illness of the lungs; smoking greatly increases the chance of its development.

Cardiovascular system

The network of blood vessels in our body form the cardiovascular system. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system that provides oxygen-rich blood to all the organs in the body and transports carbon dioxide away. Pulmonary circulation transports carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart into the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the heart. The blood is pumped through the blood vessels by the contractions of the heart. The health of our heart and blood vessels can be retained by doing regular exercise, sticking to a healthy, low-fat diet and avoiding smoking.

Nervous system

The nervous system, together with the endocrine system, is responsible for the coordinated, regulated functioning of the body. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves, which transmit information between the central nervous system and the organs as electric signals. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which emerge directly from the brain, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

Excretory system

Unnecessary and harmful materials are removed from the body by the kidneys. They produce about 1.5 litres of urine per day. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and is then released from the body through the urethra. A common illness of the urinary system is pyelitis, or inflammation of the renal pelvis. Its symptoms include protein in the urine. Kidney stones are often formed in the kidneys. These might cause small injuries and therefore blood in the urine.

Human body

Lymphatic system

Lymph is the fluid found in the interstitial spaces, also known as the tissue spaces. It is produced from blood, by osmosis through the walls of capillaries. Metabolic products are also drained in the lymph. Lymph is carried into the subclavian vein by lymph vessels, while passing through the lymph nodes. Pathogens carried by the lymph meet white blood cells living in the lymph nodes, which is important for the operation of the immune system. Other important lymphatic organs include the thymus, the spleen and the tonsils: they also play an important role in the maturation of white blood cells and in immune defence.

Reproductive system

Genitalia are responsible for reproduction, they produce gametes. During fertilisation the egg unites with a sperm, and they form a zygote from which the embryo develops. The reproductive glands in males are the testes, which produce sperm. Sperm is stored in the epididymis; during ejaculation sperm is ejected together with semen through the urethra. Semen is produced by the prostate and the seminal vesicles.

Endocrine system

Hormones are produced by the glands of the endocrine system. Adrenaline, for example, is secreted by the adrenal glands, insulin by the pancreas, and thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The centre of the endocrine system is the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus produces hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, where they stimulate production of pituitary hormones. These hormones stimulate other endocrine glands: the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the reproductive glands. The pancreas is not regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Body parts

The skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin of an average adult has a surface area of about 1.5 square metres and a mass of about 12 kg, including the hypodermal fat. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in thermoregulation.
The skin is our largest sense organ; its receptors detect heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Narration

The skin is the largest organ in the human body: the skin covering an average adult, has a surface area of about 1.5 square metres and a mass of about 12 kg, including the hypodermal fat layer. It protects the body against mechanical damage, UV radiation, and pathogens; its keratin layer prevents it from drying out. It also plays an important role in temperature regulation.
The skin is our largest sensory organ; its receptors sense heat, cold and mechanical stimuli.

Skeletal muscles are major organs of locomotion. There are about 350 skeletal muscles in the human body, making up 50% of body mass. There are long, short, flat and ring-shaped muscles. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons.

The skeleton of an adult human consists of 206 bones. Bones are rigid and flexible at the same time in order to carry a large amount of weight. Bone metabolism is slow, so bones heal slowly. A broken bone takes at least 6 weeks to heal. To prevent osteoporosis a proper daily intake of calcium (1,500 mg for adolescents) must be ensured.

The digestive system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Food is crushed in the mouth by the teeth; digestion of carbohydrates can then begin. Proteins are digested in the highly acidic stomach. Then in the small intestine all three types of nutrients, that is, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are absorbed. Pancreatic juice, which is secreted by the pancreas and contains digestive enzymes, is emptied there, as well as bile, which is secreted by the liver and aids in the digestion of lipids. The colon absorbs water and minerals; its bacterium flora produces vitamins.

Catabolic processes in our body require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide both take place in the lungs. In a relaxed state we inhale about 16 times a minute and exchange about half a litre of air each time. Lung cancer is a serious illness of the lungs; smoking greatly increases the chance of its development.

The network of blood vessels in our body form the cardiovascular system. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system that provides oxygen-rich blood to all the organs in the body and transports carbon dioxide away. Pulmonary circulation transports carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart into the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the heart. The blood is pumped through the blood vessels by the contractions of the heart. The health of our heart and blood vessels can be retained by doing regular exercise, sticking to a healthy, low-fat diet and avoiding smoking.

Unnecessary and harmful materials are removed from the body by the kidneys. They produce about 1.5 litres of urine per day. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and is then released from the body through the urethra. A common illness of the urinary system is pyelitis, or inflammation of the renal pelvis. Its symptoms include protein in the urine. Kidney stones are often formed in the kidneys. These might cause small injuries and therefore blood in the urine.

The nervous system, together with the hormonal system, is responsible for the coordinated, regulated functioning of the body. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves, which transmit information between the central nervous system and the organs as electric signals. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which emerge directly from the brain, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

Hormones are produced by the glands of the endocrine system. Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal gland, insulin by the pancreas, and thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The centre of the endocrine system is the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus produces hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, where they stimulate production of further hormones. These hormones stimulate other endocrine glands: the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the reproductive glands. The pancreas is not regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Lymph is the fluid found in the interstitial spaces, also known as the tissue spaces. It is produced from blood, by osmosis through the walls of capillaries. Metabolic products are also drained in the lymph. Lymph is carried into the subclavian vein by lymph vessels, while passing through the lymph nodes. Pathogens carried by the lymph meet white blood cells living in the lymph nodes, which is important for the operation of the immune system. Other important lymphatic organs include the thymus, the spleen and the tonsils: they also play an important role in the maturation of white blood cells and in immune defence.

Genitalia are responsible for reproduction, they produce gametes. During fertilisation the egg unites with a sperm, and they form a zygote from which the embryo develops. The reproductive glands in males are the testes, which produce sperm. Sperm is stored in the epididymis; during ejaculation sperm is ejected together with semen through the urethra. Semen is produced by the prostate and the seminal vesicles.

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