Ethene (ethylene) (C₂H₄)
The first member in the homologous series of 1-alkenes.
ethene, ethylene, alkene, olefin, unsaturated hydrocarbon, homologous series, addition, polymerisation, plant hormone, ripening, organic chemistry, chemistry
Ethene, ethylene C₂H₄
Molar mass: 28.052 g/mol
Melting point: -169 °C
Boiling point: -103.7 °C
Relative steam density (air=1): 0.98
Heat of combustion: -1,411.2 kJ/mol
Ethylene (or ethene) is a colourless, non-poisonous, lighter-than-air gas with a sweet odour. It does not dissolve in water but dissolves well in organic solvents. It burns with a bright flame and is highly reactive. Its typical reactions are addition (for example with bromide, hydrogen, and strong acids) and polymerisation.
It is highly flammable and explosive.
Occurrence and production
In laboratories ethylene is produced through the dehydration of ethanol, while in industry this occurs in the pyrolysis of ethane or mineral oil fractions.
It rarely occurs in nature. It is an important plant hormone.
Ethylene sprayed onto fruits aids ripening during transportation. In the largest quantities it is used in polyethylene production. It is also used, in smaller quantities, in the manufacture of vinyl-chloride, ethanol, ethylene-oxide and propanoic acid.
Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.
The second member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.
The first member of the homologous series of alkyne hydrocarbons.
Polymerised ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.
The monomer of PVC.
Colourless, odourless gas, the monomer of teflon.
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons which can be organised into a homologous series.
Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.
The staggered conformation of ethane is more stable than the eclipsed conformation.
One of the best known synthetic polymers.
The monomer of polypropylene.
An exercise about hydrocarbons.