Cement production

Cement production

This 3D scene presents the steps of the cement manufacturing process.

Geography

Keywords

cement production, cement, manufacture, cement factory, concrete, binder, klinker, environmental pollution, greenhouse effect, construction, clay, limestone, sand, dust, carbon dioxide, society, energy, industry, global warming, geography, technology

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Scenes

Facilities

  • clay pit - Raw materials are excavated in open-pit mines.
  • limestone quarry - Raw materials are excavated in open-pit mines.
  • cement production
  • concrete production
  • construction
  • sand mine - Raw materials are excavated in open-pit mines.

Cement is a binder, a finely ground, inorganic substance. When mixed with water, a chemical reaction takes place between its components, producing a hard, stone-like substance that is insoluble in water. Cement is a component of concrete; therefore it is widely used in the construction industry.

The most important raw materials for cement production are limestone and clay. These are extracted by open-pit mining and then transported to a cement factory either by lorries or by belt conveyors.

Process

  • clay
  • limestone
  • belt conveyor - The extracted raw materials are transported to the place of processing by this device.
  • crusher - It crushes the extracted raw materials to smaller pieces.
  • sand
  • additive
  • homogenising silo - Since the chemical and physical properties of the raw materials are varied, homogenisation is necessary to produce a uniform mixture.
  • rawmill - The homogenised mixture is ground into a fine powder.
  • raw meal silo - This is where the finely ground raw meal is stored before the next stage.
  • preheater tower - Raw meal is fed to a preheater before transferring it to the kiln.
  • cement kiln - A rotary kiln from which hot clinker falls into a cooler.
  • clinker cooler - The temperature of the clinker falling out of the kiln is over 1000 °C. To prevent further chemical and physical changes from taking place, it must be rapidly cooled down below 600 °C.
  • clinker silo - Once clinker cools down to ambient temperature, it is allowed to stand for 2-3 weeks.
  • cement mill - Clinker can be ground, among other types, in ball mills. The cement mill produces cement of the required fineness.
  • cement silo - The cement is stored here until it is transported to the place of use.

The first stage of the cement manufacturing process is raw material preparation. Limestone and clay are broken up into smaller pieces and then mixed in a 2:1 ratio. Since the chemical and physical properties of the raw materials are varied, homogenisation is necessary to produce a uniform mixture. During this process, further substances are also added. The mixture is then transferred to the rawmill, where it is ground into a fine powder called raw meal. The raw meal is then stored in a silo.

The second stage of the cement manufacturing process is the production of clinker. Raw meal is fed to a heat exchanger preheater system where chemical processes start to take place. Then it is transferred to a rotary kiln where it is heated at an even higher temperature. This process produces clinker minerals which are the components of cement. During the process, due to the rotary motion of the cement kiln, the materials aggregate into lumps or nodules, known as clinker. Clinker then falls out of the kiln into the cooler where it is rapidly cooled, then stored in a clinker silo.

The third stage in the process involves grinding clinker into a fine powder, that is, into cement. During this stage, clinker is fed into the cement mill with gypsum and other additives, then ground to a specified fineness. The produced cement is then stored in bulk in cement silos. As cement, by nature, is sensitive to moisture, it must not be stored for a long period of time.

Cement industry in the world

  • United States of America
  • Mexico
  • Brazil
  • Spain
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Egypt
  • Turkey
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Iran
  • Pakistan
  • India
  • China
  • Russia
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • South Korea

Since cement is an extremely widely used material, cement production is a major industry in the world. The largest cement producing country is China, but India, the United States, Turkey and Brazil are also major cement producing countries.

Environmental pollution

  • clay pit - Raw materials are excavated in open-pit mines.
  • limestone quarry - Raw materials are excavated in open-pit mines.
  • cement production
  • concrete production
  • construction
  • sand mine - Raw materials are excavated in open-pit mines.
  • greenhouse gases

Cement production has a number of harmful environmental effects at all stages of the process. The quarries destroy large areas of wildlife habitat and cause various types of harmful emissions, including noise, vibration and dust pollution. Equipment to reduce dust emissions is increasingly used by cement factories.

The various chemical and heating processes result in carbon dioxide emissions. Approximately 10% of global CO₂-emissions are the result of cement production. Carbon dioxide released into the air increases the greenhouse effect and thereby the rise in the average temperature of the atmosphere. Global warming is a serious threat to our planet's future.

Concrete

  • aggregates - Depending on the required type of concrete, it may be a mixture of sand, crushed stone, gravel and other additives, or a mixture of these.
  • cement storage
  • water tank
  • concrete-mixer lorry
  • aggregates - Depending on the required type of concrete, it may be a mixture of sand, crushed stone, gravel and other additives, or a mixture of these.
  • cement
  • water
  • mixer
  • ready-mix concrete
  • concrete-mixer lorry

Most of the produced cement is used to make concrete. Concrete is the most widely used artificial building material; it consists of cement, water and additives.

In concrete plants, components of concrete are first measured to have an appropriate amount and ratio of materials. These are then mixed in forced-action mixers. When cement is mixed with water, it forms a slurry, which binds the granules of the aggregate. The concrete, at this point, is a viscous fluid. However, as the cement sets, the mixture hardens into a stone-like material. Concrete is therefore time-sensitive: it must be transported to the place of use before it starts to harden. This is usually done using concrete mixer vehicles, which delay the hardening of concrete.

Narration

Cement is a binder, a finely ground, inorganic substance. When mixed with water, a chemical reaction takes place between its components, producing a hard, stone-like substance that is insoluble in water. Cement is a component of concrete; therefore it is widely used in the construction industry.
The most important raw materials for cement production are limestone and clay. These are extracted by open-pit mining and then transported to a cement factory either by lorries or by belt conveyors.

The first stage of the cement manufacturing process is raw material preparation. Limestone and clay are broken up into smaller pieces and then mixed in a 2:1 ratio. Since the chemical and physical properties of the raw materials are varied, homogenisation is necessary to produce a uniform mixture. During this process, further substances are also added. The mixture is then transferred to the rawmill, where it is ground into a fine powder called raw meal. The raw meal is then stored in a silo.

The second stage of the cement manufacturing process is the production of clinker. Raw meal is fed to a heat exchanger preheater system where chemical processes start to take place. Then it is transferred to a rotary kiln where it is heated at an even higher temperature. This process produces clinker minerals which are the components of cement. During the process, due to the rotary motion of the cement kiln, the materials aggregate into lumps or nodules, known as clinker. Clinker then falls out of the kiln into the cooler where it is rapidly cooled, then stored in a clinker silo.

The third stage in the process involves grinding clinker into a fine powder, that is, into cement. During this stage, clinker is fed into the cement mill with gypsum and other additives, then ground to a specified fineness. The produced cement is then stored in bulk in cement silos. As cement, by nature, is sensitive to moisture, it must not be stored for a long period of time.

Since cement is an extremely widely used material, cement production is a major industry in the world. The largest cement producing country is China, but India, the United States, Turkey and Brazil are also major cement producing countries.

Cement production has a number of harmful environmental effects at all stages of the process. The quarries destroy large areas of wildlife habitat and cause various types of harmful emissions, including noise, vibration and dust pollution. Equipment to reduce dust emissions is increasingly used by cement factories.
The various chemical and heating processes result in carbon dioxide emissions. Approximately 10% of global CO₂-emissions are the result of cement production. Carbon dioxide released into the air increases the greenhouse effect and thereby the rise in the average temperature of the atmosphere. Global warming is a serious threat to our planet's future.

Most of the produced cement is used to make concrete. Concrete is the most widely used artificial building material; it consists of cement, water and additives.
In concrete plants, components of concrete are first measured to have an appropriate amount and ratio of materials. These are then mixed in forced-action mixers. When cement is mixed with water, it forms a slurry, which binds the granules of the aggregate. The concrete, at this point, is a viscous fluid. However, as the cement sets, the mixture hardens into a stone-like material. Concrete is therefore time-sensitive: it must be transported to the place of use before it starts to harden. This is usually done using concrete mixer vehicles, which delay the hardening of concrete.

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