Amino acids

Amino acids

Amino acids are the monomers of proteins.

Chemistry

Keywords

amino acid, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, phenylalanine, glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, proline, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, serine, valine, alanine, protein, peptide, peptide bond, amide bond, zwitterionic structure, nonpolar side chains, polar side chain, molecule, chemistry, organic chemistry

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Amino acids (main menu)

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Alanine (C₃H₇NO₂)

A non-polar amino acid. L and D molecules are mirror images of each other.

Arginine

One of the twenty protein-building amino acids.

Asparagine

One of the twenty protein-building amino acids.

Aspartic acid

One of the twenty protein-building amino acids.

Cysteine

An amino acid containing sulphur, one of the amino acids that make up proteins.

Glutamic acid

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Glutamine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Histidine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Isoleucine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Leucine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Lysine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Methionine

A sulphur-containing amino acid.

Phenylalanine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Proline

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins. Its amino group and the 3rd carbon atom of the side chain form a ring.

Serine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Threonine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Tyrosine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins. It contains an aromatic ring as part of its side chain.

Tryptophan

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins. It contains an aromatic ring as part of its side chain.

Valine

One of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Secondary structure of proteins

Polypeptide chains are composed of amino acids and can appear in alpha-helix or beta-sheet form.

Structure of proteins

The structure and arrangement of polypeptide chains affects the spatial structure of proteins.

Ammonium ion (NH₄⁺)

A compound ion generated when a proton is added to an ammonia molecule.

Haemoglobin

Oxygen carrier protein in our red blood cells.

Nitrogen cycle

Atmospherical nitrogen is bound by bacteria and used by living organisms in the form of various compounds.

Optical isomerism

Mirror image isomers of asymmetrical shapes and solids are non-superimposable.

Peptide bond

Amino acids that make up proteins are bound by peptide bonds.

Producing ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas

Large-scale ammonia production requires high temperature and pressure and the presence of iron as a catalyst.

Ammonia (NH₃)

Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Its solution in water is called ammonium hydroxide or household ammonia.

Fibroin

Fibroin is a fibrillar protein excreted by silkworms.

Glycylglycine (C₄H₈N₂O₃)

The simplest peptide, formed from two glycine molecules by a peptide bond.

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