Alpha-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Alpha-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.

Chemistry

Keywords

alpha-D-glucose, dextrose, monosaccharide, carbohydrate, sugar, simple sugar, stereoisomer, hexose, glycoside, aldose, aldohexose, silver mirror test, constitution, conformation, axial, equatorial, photosynthesis, starch, organic chemistry, chemistry

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Scenes

Ball-and-stick

Alpha-D-glucose C₆H₁₂O₆

Information

Molar mass: 180.16 g/mol

Melting point: 146 °C

Density: 1.5620 g/cm³

Heat of combustion: -2,805 kJ/mol

Properties

Alpha-D-glucose is an aldohexose. It is a white, odourless, sweet, crystalline compound, which dissolves well in water but poorly in alcohol. When heated, it melts at a low temperature. The ring structure contains an ether and a hydroxyl group.

Alpha’ means that the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon atom is located below the plane of the ring, opposite the CH₂OH group. In beta-D-glucose the hydroxyl group and the CH₂OH group are located on the same hemisphere.

’D’ means that the chiral centre farther from the oxo group has the same configuration as in D-glyceraldehyde.

Alpha-D-glucose forms esters with carboxylic acids. It gives positive results for the Fehling’s and Tollens’ tests since some of the rings open up in an aqueous solution, and the resulting open chain molecules take part in the reaction.

Occurrence and production

Glucose is found in almost all sweet fruits, it is a component of di-, and polysaccharides such as maltose and starch.

It is produced in plants during photosynthesis.

Uses

The human body uses the energy produced during the slow metabolic breakdown (or biological oxidation) of glucose. It is used in large quantities in several chemical syntheses, such as the production of sorbitol, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, and glutamic acid.

Space-filling

Narration

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A disaccharide formed by the joining of two alpha-D-glucose molecules.

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