ADP, ATP

ADP, ATP

ATP is the main source of energy for cells.

Biology

Keywords

ADP, ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine triphosphate, energy storage molecule, energy transport molecule, nucleotide, metabolic processes, macroerg bond, ribose, adenine, phosphate, biology, biochemistry, chemistry

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Scenes

ADP

ADP space-filling model

ATP

ATP space-filling model

Narration

Narration

Nucleotides, including ATP and ADP, consist of 3 main constituents: a pentose, that is, a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing organic base and a phosphate group. In ATP, that is, adenosine triphosphate molecules the pentose is a ribose, while the base is an adenine. Adenine is attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose, while three phosphate groups are attached to its 5' carbon atom. The bond between the second and third phosphate groups is a high-energy bond, 31 kJ/mol of energy is released when the bond breaks and ADP, adenosine diphosphate is formed.

ATP is indispensable in the metabolism of living cells. During energy-absorbing processes, the high-energy bond breaks and the energy released is used in the processes that take place. In the case of energy-releasing biochemical processes, ADP and phosphoric acid attach and form ATP. The bond is formed using the energy released in the biochemical reaction.

Related items

Beta-D-ribose (C₅H₁₀O₅)

A crystalline compound found in nucleic acids, coenzymes, nucleotides and nucleosides.

Phosphate ion (PO₄³⁻)

A compound ion formed when a phosphoric acid molecule releases a proton.

Phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄)

It is also used as a food additive, limescale and rust remover.

Purine (C₅H₄N₄)

A heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, its derivatives include guanine and adenine.

Coenzyme A

An acyl-carrier coenzyme taking part in both anabolic and catabolic processes.

NAD⁺, NADP⁺, NADPH

NAD⁺ is a coenzyme that plays an important role mainly in catabolic processes, while NADP is important in anabolic processes as hydrogen carriers.

D-ribose (C₅H₁₀O₅)

The open-chain version of ribose, which occurs naturally in nucleic acids, coenzymes, nucleotides and nucleosides.

Enzymes

Enzymes are protein molecules catalysing biochemical reactions. Their activity can be regulated.

Photosynthesis

Plants are capable of converting inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) into organic sugar.

Photosynthesis (basic)

Plants are capable of converting inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) into organic sugar.

Transport processes

This animation explains active and passive transport processes occurring through cell membranes

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